ANTENNAS AND RADIOPROPAGATIONAnno accademico 2019/2020 - 1° anno
SSD: ING-INF/02 - Campi elettromagnetici
Organizzazione didattica: 225 ore d'impegno totale, 144 di studio individuale, 56 di lezione frontale, 25 di esercitazione
The lectures aim to give the conceptual tools and the techniques for the description of the classical electromagnetic phenomena with particular reference to the irradiation and propagation of electromagnetic signals. The aim is the acquisition of basic methodologies for the study, analysis and sizing of guiding structures and antennas
Modalità di svolgimento dell'insegnamento
The course includes both lectures and experimental laboratories to elaborate on the contents of the lessons.
Basic knowledge of differential and integral calculus. Phasors and vectors. Differential operators. Concept of charge, current, electric and magnetic field. Techniques to study lumped circuits.
Although lecture attendance is not mandatory, it is strongly recommended.
Contenuti del corso
1) Maxwell's equations
- Maxwell's equations in time-domain (axiomatic viewpoint).
- Charges in electromagnetic fields: Lorentz force.
- Constitutive relations and boundary conditions.
- Conservation Laws, energy density and energy flow.
- Time-harmonic electromagnetic fields.
- Classical models for dielectrics, conductors and plasma.
2) Simple solutions of Maxwell's equations: plane waves
- Uniform plane waves in lossless media.
- Monochromatic plane waves.
- Uniform plane waves in lossy media (frequency-domain).
- Propagation in weakly-lossy dielectric.
- Propagation in good conductors: skin effect.
- Wave polarization.
- Uniform plane waves in lossy media.
- Propagation in oblique directions.
- Classification of complex (or inhomogeneous) waves.
- Group velocity and energy velocity.
3) Transmission Lines, Matching Techniques and Waveguides
- TEM propagation in transmission lines.
- Distributed circuit model of a transmission line.
- Characteristic impedance, reflection coefficient, VSWR, SWR.
- Overview of commonly-used transmission lines.
- Matching techniques.
- Helmholtz decomposition in waveguides.
- Classification of modes: TE, TM and TEM.
- Waveguides: TE/TM modes, power transfer, group velocity.
4) Reflection and Transmission of plane waves
- Planar interface between two media: TE/TM modes.
- Reflectionless slab and planar multi-layer structures.
- Equivalent transmission line model for TE/TM propagation in multi-layer slabs.
5) Radiation Theory and Antennas
- Charges and currents as sources of EM fields.
- Retarded potentials and signal propagation.
- Time-harmonic radiation theory: potentials.
- Far-field approximation and plane-wave spectrum (PWS).
- Antenna relevant parameters: pattern, gain, directivity, effective area, polarization.
- EM Field radiated by an elementary dipole.
- Wire and loop antennas: description and relevant antenna parameters.
- Overview of commonly-used kinds of antennas.
6) Coupled Antennas
- Near Fields of Linear Antennas.
- Self and Mutual Impedance.
- Wireless power transfer.
- Numerical techniques in electromagnetism and currents on Linear Antennas.
7) Transmitting and Receiving Antennas
- Coupled antennas: Friis’ Formula. Polarization matching.
- Antenna Noise Temperature and data rate limit.
- Satellite links.
- RADAR Equation.
- Plane waves: Fresnel coefficients measurement.
- Study and design of waveguides and linear antennas using numerical CAD.
- Antenna pattern measurements.
- RADAR systems.
Testi di riferimento
1. S. J. Orfanidis, "Electromagnetic Waves and Antennas".
2. C. G. Someda, "Electromagnetic Waves", CRC Press.
3. F. T. Ulaby, U. Ravaioli Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics (7th Edition), Pearson Education
4. R. Sorrentino e G. Bianchi, "Microwave and RF Engineering", John Wiley & Sons 2010
Programmazione del corso
|1||Maxwell's equations||1 and 2|
|2||Simple solutions of Maxwell's equations: plane waves||2|
|3||Transmission Lines||3 and Studium|
|6||Reflection and Transmission of plane waves||1 and 2|
|7||Radiation Theory and Antennas||1 and 2|
|8||Transmitting and Receiving Antennas||1 and 2|
Modalità di verifica dell'apprendimento
Written and Oral Exams.
Esempi di domande e/o esercizi frequenti
Questions and exercises related to the course program.