ANTENNE E RADIOPROPAGAZIONE
Academic Year 2018/2019  1° YearCredit Value: 9
Scientific field: INGINF/02  Electromagnetic fields
Taught classes: 56 hours
Laboratories: 25 hours
Term / Semester: 2°
ENGLISH VERSION
Learning Objectives
The lectures aim to give the conceptual tools and the techniques for the description of the classical electromagnetic phenomena with particular reference to the irradiation and propagation of electromagnetic signals. The aim is the acquisition of basic methodologies for the study, analysis and sizing of guiding structures and antennas
Course Structure
The course includes both lectures and experimental laboratories to elaborate on the contents of the lessons.
Required prerequisites:
Basic knowledge of differential and integral calculus. Phasors and vectors. Differential operators. Concept of charge, current, electric and magnetic field. Techniques to study lumped circuits.
Detailed Course Content
Maxwell's equations and general principles 
Introduction to electromagnetism. Historical Background, importance and applications. Maxwell's equations in the time domain: integral form and differential form. Charge and current density. Lorentz force. Boundary conditions at surfaces of discontinuity. Maxwell's equations in sinusoidal regime. Phasor representation. Polarization of the electromagnetic field. Constitutive relations. Material properties. Dispersive media. Constitutive relation for a cold plasma without collisions. Energy of the electromagnetic field. Poynting vector. Uniqueness of the solution (time domain and phasor domain). Resonance conditions. Radiation conditions at infinity. 
Propagation

Planewave solution. Phase and group velocity. Plane waves: classification. Reflection and transmission at plane interfaces. Normal incidence. Good conductor of case: skin depth. Snell low. Fresnel coefficients for parallel (TM) and orthogonal (TE) polarization. Total transmission (Brewster angle) and total reflection (critical angle). Transmission in a lossy medium. Leontovic condition. Propagation through the atmosphere (surface wave propagation and by ionospheric wave). 
Guided propagation 
Transmission lines. Metallic waveguides with cylindrical symmetry. Separation of longitudinal transverse components. TEM modes. Equivalent voltages and currents on a transmission line. Telegrapher's equations (time and frequency domain). Phase velocity. Primary and secondary parameters of a transmission line. Stationary and progressive solutions. Reflection coefficient. Impedance (definition). Impedance transport. Voltages and currents on a transmisison line: matched load, reactive load, generic load. Voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR). Impedance matching: quarter wavelength transformer, single and double stub. Resonance on transmission lines, series resonance and parallel resonance, resonance conditions. Losses in transmission lines. Lines with small losses. Propagation of a narrowband signal, the group velocity. Waveguides TE and TM modes. Helmholtz equation or for potential. Eigenvalues , orthogonality of the eigenfunctions . Modal expansion. Consequences of orthogonality for total power flowing. Equivalent transmission lines. Dispersion and cutoff frequencies in waveguide. Fundamental and higher modes. Calculation of the TE and TM modes in a rectangular waveguide. Dimensions of the rectangular waveguide fundamental mode TE10. 
Radiation and reception of electromagnetic field 
Electromagnetic potentials. Gauge transformations. Magnetic vector potential. Elementary electric dipole in a homogeneous medium. Far field contitions. Circular loop. Thin linear antennas: half wave antenna. Antennas parameters: effective height, input impedance and the radiation resistance. Directivity, gain. Reception. Polarization matching and impedance matching. Effective area. Aperture antennas. Friis transmission formula. Image sources (image currents). 
Laboratory 
Study and design of waveguides and linear antennas using numerical methods; measurement of the resonance frequency and radiation pattern of antennas*. Plane waves: Snell laws/ Fresnel coefficients. MASTER DEGREE THESIS: The topics marked with an asterisk (*) can be matter of thesis work. 
Textbook Information
1. F. T. Ulaby, U. Ravaioli Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics (7th Edition), Pearson Education
2. R. Sorrentino e G. Bianchi, "Microwave and RF Engineering", John Wiley & Sons 2010
3. G. Manara, A. Monorchio, P. Nepa, “Appunti di Campi Elettromagnetici”, SEU , Pisa
4. Franceschetti, “Campi Elettromagnetici”, Boringhieri
5. Fawwaz T. Ulaby, “Fondamenti di campi elettromagnetici  Teoria e applicazioni”, McgrawHill