# ELECTRONICS

**Academic Year 2022/2023**- Teacher:

**Gaetano PALUMBO**

## Expected Learning Outcomes

**Knowledge and understanding**

The course is aimed at providing the students with the knowledge on basic electron devices and analog and digital circuits in CMOS technology. Speciﬁcally, fabrication tecnologies and operating principles of the most common electron devices will be descrbed and the most basic analog and digital topologies will be discussed with enphasis on the techniques of analysis and when possible also on the design criteria. Circuits based on the Operational Ampliﬁer will be also introduced. Besides, exercitations and computer simulations will be oﬀered and aimed at consolidating of theoretical topics and the design techniques discussed.

**Applying knowledge and
understanding**

At the end of the course the student will be aware of the main electronic devices and their ﬁeld of application and will be able to analyze and design simple analog and digital circuits.

**Making judgements**

Students will be able to design simple analog and digital circuits by making proper and autonomous design choices. Proper numerical exercises will refine the making judgement skill.

**Communication skills**

Students will acquire the technical language of circuit electronics. They will also be able to communicate the proper design choices made to solve a circuit problem. Oral exam allows students to refine technical language and communication skills.

**Learning skills**

Students can expand their knowledge of electronics through the study of the recommended textbooks and through the ideas offered by the seminar activities organized within the course.

## Detailed Course Content

1. Introduction to Electronics and **Solid-State
Electronics:** Solid-State Electronic
Materials. Covalent Bond Model. Intrinsic carrier. concentration. Mass action.
*Drift Currents and Mobility in Semiconductors. Velocity Saturation.
Resistivity of Intrinsic Silicon. *Impurities in Semiconductors. Electron and
Hole Concentrations in Doped Semiconductors. *Diﬀusion Currents. *Total Current.
Energy Band Model.

2.
**Solid-state
Diodes and Diode circuits:** Junction
diode.The *i-v Characteristics of the Diode. *Diode Characteristics Under
Reverse, Zero, and Forward Bias. Diode Temperature Coeﬃcient. *Reverse
Breakdown and Zener Diode. pn Junction Capacitance in Reverse Bias and Forward
Bias. Dynamic Switching Behavior of the Diode. Large signal Model. Diode SPICE
Model. *Diode Circuit Analysis. Load-Line Analysis. Analysis Using the
Mathematical Model for the Diode (small signal resistance). *Constant Voltage
Drop Model. Multiple-Diode Circuits. *Half-Wave Rectiﬁer Circuits with R, C and RC load. Full-Wave Rectiﬁer and Bridge Circuits. *Voltage regulator with Zener diode. Photo Diodes
and Photodetectors. Schottky Barrier Diodes. Solar Cells. Light-Emitting
Diodes.

3.
**Field-e****ﬀ****ect Transistors:** Characteristics of the MOS Capacitor. Accumulation Region.
Depletion5. Region. Inversion Region. The NMOS Transistor. *Qualitative i-v
Behavior of the NMOS Transistor. *Triode Region Characteristics of the NMOS
Transistor. On Resistance. Saturation of the i-v Characteristics. *Mathematical
Model in the Saturation (Pinch-Oﬀ) Region Transconductance. Channel-Length Modulation. Body Eﬀect. PMOS Transistors.
MOSFET Circuit Symbols. NMOS Transistor Capacitances in the Triode Region.
Capacitances in the Saturation Region. Capacitances in
Cutoﬀ.
*MOSFET biasing (4 resistors network) and analysis.

4.
**Digital
circuits:** Ideal Logic Gates. *Logic Level Deﬁnitions and Noise Margins. Logic Gate Design. Goals. Dynamic Response of
Logic Gates. *Rise Time and Fall Time. *Propagation Delay. *PowerDelay Product.
Review of Boolean Algebra. CMOS logic circuits. *Static characteristics of the
CMOS Inverter. CMOS Voltage Transfer Characteristics. *CMOS NOR and NAND Gates.
Design of Complex Gates in CMOS. Cascade Buﬀers and Delay
Model. Optimum Number of Stages. Bistable latch. *SR Flip-Flop. *JK Flip ﬂop. Flip-Flop race condition. The D-Latch Using Transmission Gates. *MasterSlave
Flip-Flop. Edge triggered Flip ﬂop. Counters and registers. Random Access Memories (RAMs). *6-T cell.
Dynamic RAMs. *1-T cell.

5.
**Operational
Ampli****ﬁ****ers:** An Example of an Analog Electronic System. Ampliﬁcation. Voltage Gain, Current Gain and Power Gain. The Decibel Scale. The
Diﬀerential Ampliﬁer. Diﬀerential Ampliﬁer Voltage Transfer Characteristic. Diﬀerential Voltage
Gain. Diﬀerential Ampliﬁer Model. Ideal
Operational Ampliﬁer. *Assumptions
for Ideal Operational Ampliﬁer. *The Inverting Ampliﬁer. *The Transresistance Ampliﬁer. *The Noninverting Ampliﬁer. *The Unity-Gain Buﬀer, or Voltage Follower. *The Summing Ampliﬁer. *The Diﬀerence Ampliﬁer. An active
Low-Pass Filter. An Active High-Pass Filter. *The Integrator. *The Diﬀerentiator.
Nonidealities: Common mode gain. CMRR. I/O
resistances. Oﬀset.
Slew rate.

6. **Small-signal
Modeling and linear ampli****ﬁ****cation:** The Transistor as an Ampliﬁer. Coupling and Bypass Capacitors. Circuit Analysis Using dc and ac
Equivalent Circuits. *Small-Signal Modeling of the Diode. *Small-Signal Models
for Field-Eﬀect Transistors. *Intrinsic Voltage Gain of the MOSFET. *The Common-Source
Ampliﬁer (Voltage
Gain. I/O resistances). Power dissipation and signal swing. *Ampliﬁers classiﬁcation. CS, CD,
CG conﬁgurations. *CS
with resistive degeneration. AC-coupled multi stage ampliﬁers.

7. **Frequency
response:** *Frequency response of Ampliﬁers, Midband gain, Low and high cutoﬀ frequencies (*f*_{L} and *f*_{H}).
*Estimation of *f*_{L} through the short-circuit time
constant method for CS, CG, CD ampliﬁer. *High-frequency MOSFET model. *Transition frequency, *f*_{T}.
Channel Length. *L’eﬀetto Miller. *High-Frequency C-S Ampliﬁer Analysis. The Miller Eﬀect. Common-Emitter and Common-Source Ampliﬁer High-Frequency Response. *Estimation of *f*_{H} through
the open-circuit time constant method for CS.

8. **Bipolar transistor: **Bipolar transistor basics

**VERSIONE IN ITALIANO**