Academic Year 2022/2023 - Teacher: Gaetano PALUMBO

Expected Learning Outcomes

Knowledge and understanding

The course is aimed at providing the students with the knowledge on basic electron devices and analog and digital circuits in CMOS technology. Specically, fabrication tecnologies and operating principles of the most common electron devices will be descrbed and the most basic analog and digital topologies will be discussed with enphasis on the techniques of analysis and when possible also on the design criteria. Circuits based on the Operational Amplier will be also introduced. Besides, exercitations and computer simulations will be oered and aimed at consolidating of theoretical topics and the design techniques discussed.

Applying knowledge and understanding

At the end of the course the student will be aware of the main electronic devices and their eld of application and will be able to analyze and design simple analog and digital circuits.

Making judgements

Students will be able to design simple analog and digital circuits by making proper and autonomous design choices. Proper numerical exercises will refine the making judgement skill.

Communication skills

Students will acquire the technical language of circuit electronics. They will also be able to communicate the proper design choices made to solve a circuit problem. Oral exam allows students to refine technical language and communication skills.

Learning skills

Students can expand their knowledge of electronics through the study of the recommended textbooks and through the ideas offered by the seminar activities organized within the course.

Detailed Course Content

1.       Introduction to Electronics and Solid-State Electronics: Solid-State Electronic Materials. Covalent Bond Model. Intrinsic carrier. concentration. Mass action. *Drift Currents and Mobility in Semiconductors. Velocity Saturation. Resistivity of Intrinsic Silicon. *Impurities in Semiconductors. Electron and Hole Concentrations in Doped Semiconductors. *Diusion Currents. *Total Current. Energy Band Model.

2.      Solid-state Diodes and Diode circuits: Junction diode.The *i-v Characteristics of the Diode. *Diode Characteristics Under Reverse, Zero, and Forward Bias. Diode Temperature Coecient. *Reverse Breakdown and Zener Diode. pn Junction Capacitance in Reverse Bias and Forward Bias. Dynamic Switching Behavior of the Diode. Large signal Model. Diode SPICE Model. *Diode Circuit Analysis. Load-Line Analysis. Analysis Using the Mathematical Model for the Diode (small signal resistance). *Constant Voltage Drop Model. Multiple-Diode Circuits. *Half-Wave Rectier Circuits with R, C and RC load. Full-Wave Rectier and Bridge Circuits. *Voltage regulator with Zener diode. Photo Diodes and Photodetectors. Schottky Barrier Diodes. Solar Cells. Light-Emitting Diodes.

3.      Field-eect Transistors: Characteristics of the MOS Capacitor. Accumulation Region. Depletion5. Region. Inversion Region. The NMOS Transistor. *Qualitative i-v Behavior of the NMOS Transistor. *Triode Region Characteristics of the NMOS Transistor. On Resistance. Saturation of the i-v Characteristics. *Mathematical Model in the Saturation (Pinch-O) Region Transconductance. Channel-Length Modulation. Body Eect. PMOS Transistors. MOSFET Circuit Symbols. NMOS Transistor Capacitances in the Triode Region. Capacitances in the Saturation Region. Capacitances in Cuto. *MOSFET biasing (4 resistors network) and analysis.

4.      Digital circuits: Ideal Logic Gates. *Logic Level Denitions and Noise Margins. Logic Gate Design. Goals. Dynamic Response of Logic Gates. *Rise Time and Fall Time. *Propagation Delay. *PowerDelay Product. Review of Boolean Algebra. CMOS logic circuits. *Static characteristics of the CMOS Inverter. CMOS Voltage Transfer Characteristics. *CMOS NOR and NAND Gates. Design of Complex Gates in CMOS. Cascade Buers and Delay Model. Optimum Number of Stages. Bistable latch. *SR Flip-Flop. *JK Flip op. Flip-Flop race condition. The D-Latch Using Transmission Gates. *MasterSlave Flip-Flop. Edge triggered Flip op. Counters and registers. Random Access Memories (RAMs). *6-T cell. Dynamic RAMs. *1-T cell.

5.      Operational Ampliers: An Example of an Analog Electronic System. Amplication. Voltage Gain, Current Gain and Power Gain. The Decibel Scale. The Dierential Amplier. Dierential Amplier Voltage Transfer Characteristic. Dierential Voltage Gain. Dierential Amplier Model. Ideal Operational Amplier. *Assumptions for Ideal Operational Amplier. *The Inverting Amplier. *The Transresistance Amplier. *The Noninverting Amplier. *The Unity-Gain Buer, or Voltage Follower. *The Summing Amplier. *The Dierence Amplier. An active Low-Pass Filter. An Active High-Pass Filter. *The Integrator. *The Dierentiator. Nonidealities: Common mode gain. CMRR. I/O resistances. Oset. Slew rate.

6.   Small-signal Modeling and linear amplication: The Transistor as an Amplier. Coupling and Bypass Capacitors. Circuit Analysis Using dc and ac Equivalent Circuits. *Small-Signal Modeling of the Diode. *Small-Signal Models for Field-Eect Transistors. *Intrinsic Voltage Gain of the MOSFET. *The Common-Source Amplier (Voltage Gain. I/O resistances). Power dissipation and signal swing. *Ampliers classication. CS, CD, CG congurations. *CS with resistive degeneration. AC-coupled multi stage ampliers.

7.     Frequency response: *Frequency response of Ampliers, Midband gain, Low and high cuto frequencies (fL and fH). *Estimation of fL through the short-circuit time constant method for CS, CG, CD amplier. *High-frequency MOSFET model. *Transition frequency, fT. Channel Length. *L’eetto Miller. *High-Frequency C-S Amplier Analysis. The Miller Eect. Common-Emitter and Common-Source Amplier High-Frequency Response. *Estimation of fH through the open-circuit time constant method for CS.

8.     Bipolar transistor: Bipolar transistor basics