Academic Year 2023/2024 - Teacher: Michele MESSINA

Expected Learning Outcomes

The Course has the objective to train young engineers to work in industry, by providing them, through lectures, numerical exercises and laboratory experiences, specific expertise in the fields of Turbomachinery, Hydraulic Power Plants, Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (ICE), Power Plants for Energy Generation through Thermo-Mechanical Conversion. The student must demonstrate that he has acquired specific knowledge, with the aim of covering industrial roles in design, maintenance and management in the field of Fluid Machines and Systems for the Energy and Environment especially in the field of Renewable Energy Sources. Finally, notions of pneumatics and hydraulics will be provided.

Course Structure

Lectures (56 hours) and numerical exercises (60 hours).

Required Prerequisites

Fisica Tecnica (mandatory)

 Meccanica applicata alle macchine (mandatory)

Attendance of Lessons


Detailed Course Content


Basic Energy Concepts. Energy Conversion. Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Conversion Devices.


POWER PLANTS AND CYCLES - General data on engine systems - Fossil and nuclear fuel- hydraulic and thermal systems. Cycles, efficiency and cost of energy.

- Fluid motion in ducts with energy exchange - Mechanical and thermal energy equations, applications. Analytical processes and graphical study of compression and expansion. Works and performance. Conditions of stagnation.

- Fixed and mobile ducts - Hugoniot's equations. State of pressure and capacity in the nozzles. References to diffusers. Euleriane power expressions. Energetic balance of a stage. Fluid machines blades.

- Positive displacement: reciprocating and rotative pumps and compressors, positive displacement machines. Centrifugal and axial flow pumps and compressors. Internal and external characteristics of the machine. Adjustment and operation limits.

- Steam and gas turbomachinery engine - reaction and action stages. Speed triangles, efficiency. Curtis stage. Flow rate disposal. Characteristic curves.

- Hydraulic turbines: Pelton, Francis, Kaplan. Characteristic speed. Cavitation process. Recovery of the kinetic energy during the outlet phase.

- Gas turbine - Open and closed circuit systems. Real and maximum efficiency. Various outlines of system. Materials for high temperatures. References to adjustment.

- Steam engines systems - Rankine and Hirn cycles. Condensation and counter pressure systems. Thermal resuperheating and regeneration: efficiency. Examples of systems and elements. Cogenerative systems. Combined gas and steam systems.

- Volumetric reciprocating compressors: Maximum operation of a simple-effect reciprocating compressor. Real operation of a simple-effect reciprocating compressor. Multistage reciprocating compressors. Approximate dimensioning. Adjustment of the range.

- Internal combustion engines – Reference-cycles. Diagram of the distribution. Power expressions. Indicated cycle, average pressure. Spark-ignition engines: regular combustion and detonation. Polluting emissions. Compression-ignition engines: combustion, power limits. References to the supercharging.

- Hydraulics and pneumatics - Outline of hydraulics. Introduction to the study of hydraulic circuits. Unified symbology. Linear and rotary actuators. Simplified circuit. Forces, speed and power of an actuator. Reciprocating and rotary pumps. Additional components of hydraulic circuits. Pressure control valves. Distributor valves. Flow control valves. Cavitation. Accumulators. Hydraulic motors. Hydrostatic transmission. HES (Hydraulic Energy Storage systems) Hybrid systems . Outline of pneumatics. Characteristics of the air. Production and distribution of compressed air. Compressors. Adjustment. Tanks. Compressed air treatment. Pneumatic actuators. Air consumption. Valves. Drives. Pneumatic systems.

Textbook Information

1.  C.CAPUTO:"Gli impianti motori termici" - ESA

 2.  O.ACTON - C.CAPUTO: “Introduzione allo studio delle macchine” - UTET

 3.  C.CAPUTO: “Le Turbomacchine”  Vol. II. MASSON

 4.  O.ACTON - C.CAPUTO: “Compressori ed espansori volumetrici” - UTET

 5.  L. CATALANO  M. NAPOLITANO: “Elementi di macchine operatrici a fluido”  PITAGORA EDITRICE

 6.  M. BIANCHI  F. MELINO  A. PERETTO: “Sistemi energetici”  PITAGORA EDITRICE  Bologna  Vol.1, 2, 3

 7.  C. D’AMELIO  “Elementi di macchine. Le turbine idrauliche”  Fridericiana Editrice Universitaria

 8.  O.ACTON: "Turbomacchine" - UTET

 9.  A.BECCARI-C.CAPUTO:"Motori termici volumetrici"  UTET

 10.  D. GIACOSA: “Motori endotermici” - HOEPLI

 11. Dispense del Corso

 12. Hanno Speich e Aurelio Bucciarelli: Manuale di oleodinemica – Dai principi alla meccatronica. Casa Editrice Tecniche nuove.

 13. Belforte, Manuello, Mazza – Pneumatica – Tecniche nuove.

Course Planning

 SubjectsText References
1Renewavble Energy6
4HYDRAULIC turbines3, 7, 8, 11
5Axial/flow turbines3
6Pumps, fans and Compressors3, 5
8POWER PLANTS1, 9, 10, 11

Learning Assessment

Learning Assessment Procedures

Written Test and Oral exam.

Written test. Solving numerical applications.

Oral exam. Elements to be evaluated: relevance of the answers, quality of their contents, ability to connect with other topics within the program, ability to report examples, quality of technical language, and overall expressive ability.

To guarantee equal opportunities and in compliance with current laws, students can request a meeting in order to plan any compensatory and/or dispensatory measure, according to the educational goals and specific needs. In this case, it is advisable to contact the CInAP (Centre for Active and Participated Integration - Services for Disabilities and/or SLD) professor of the Department where the Degree Course is included.

Examples of frequently asked questions and / or exercises

Euler equations for Turbomachines; 

Reciprocating Volumetric Compressors; 

Axial single-stage turbine;

Turbogas plants;

Internal Combustion Engines; 

Gas dynamics of a nozzles;

Sources of renewable energy; 

Classification of Fluid Machines;

Systems for the production of energy from solar, wind and marine sources;

Description of a hydraulic circuit;

Evaluation of the force and power of a linear actuator;

Air treatment for pneumatic systems;

Determination of air consumption for pneumatic systems.