BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (Electrotechnics) A - L
Academic Year 2023/2024 - Teacher: Nunzio SALERNOExpected Learning Outcomes
The course aims to provide students with knowledge of the theoretical and methodological bases of the circuit model, as well as the methods of analysis and the main theorems of electrical networks, operating both in transient and sinusoidal conditions. Particular emphasis is given to the study of the latter, in consideration of the fact that its knowledge is essential for the understanding of numerous and important topics falling within the field of industrial engineering, such as the operation of machines, plant drives, and electrical measuring instruments, as well as that of power electronic circuits and industrial automation systems. The course also provides a panoramic description of the most important applications of stationary and quasi-stationary electric and magnetic fields, magnetic circuits, three-phase networks, and transmission lines.
Knowledge and understanding.
A knowledge of significant conceptual importance that the students acquire during the course is the understanding of the complementarity relationship existing between the field formulation, based on the fundamental laws of the electromagnetic field, and the circuit one, based on the electric network model called concentrated parameters or, with different diction, zero-dimensional model. Both formulations are in fact widely used to analyze the operation of numerous electrical devices and systems, as well as to carry out their design. Another important acquisition of students is represented by the learning of methods of analysis of electrical networks having characteristics of generality, systematicity, and efficiency, as well as the main theorems of electrical networks. This body of knowledge allows them to fully understand the operation of electrical networks, as well as the fields of application and the limits of validity of the circuit model. It is therefore well understood that knowledge of these topics is essential for analyzing new problems and developing original solutions.
Applying knowledge and understanding.
Among the main skills acquired by the student at the end of the course is of knowing how to analyze linear and time-invariant networks operating both in the stationary and sinusoidal regimes and in the transient one. These skills are essential for the understanding of numerous applications falling within the area of Industrial and Information Engineering, since these applications are the subject of specialized in-depth studies in courses such as, for example, Automatics, Electronics, Power Electronics, Theory of Signals, having said knowledge a strong interdisciplinary value.
Making judgments.
The course also intends to stimulate and increase the ability to exercise the student's critical and judgment skills. In fact, the identification of the most appropriate strategy for solving a given exercise, in relation to the type of questions formulated and the characteristics of the network to be analyzed, requires the student to carry out a careful examination of the problem and a reflection on the knowledge already acquired. apt to solve it. Once the solution has been obtained, the student is also asked to verify the correctness of the solution obtained both on the basis of the expected result, even approximate, and through the comparison of the result obtained using a different method of resolution using, if necessary, also computer tools. A further source of acquiring independent judgment is the ability to provide an explanation for possible initially unexpected results, which further contributes to improving the understanding of the functioning of the electrical network studied and to develop in the course of preparation for the teaching exam, the ability to formulate hypotheses on the behavior of a network, albeit having non-exhaustive information on it.
Communication skills.
One of the results of the course is the learning of the correct use of both the symbology and circuit nomenclature and the mathematical tools and physical knowledge learned in the preparatory courses, necessary for the resolution of specific exercises carried out in class or assigned to the exam tests. . During the lessons, particular attention was obviously dedicated to learning the units of measurement of electrical quantities and their use. A significant part of the theoretical results of the course is demonstrated, further contributing to increasing the understanding of the results themselves and their implications, as well as their appropriate and flexible use in solving the exercises. All this stimulates and advances the student's communicative ability, enabling him to communicate clearly and without uncertainty both with subjects who are cultured in the discipline and with subjects who are not, providing both categories with valid arguments.
Learning skills.
The study of electrical engineering, traditionally and equally divided between the acquisition of concepts and theoretical results and the progressive increase in the ability to resolve electrical networks, leads to an improvement in the student's ability to think and learn. Specifically, the analysis of electrical networks having very different structural and constitutive characteristics involves the student's refinement of the ability to recognize the general properties of the network under study, as well as identify the most suitable solution strategy. All this determines an increase in the ability to classify problems and the strengthening of the ability to identify one's own and effective method of study, in relation to the nature of the problem, certainly useful in the continuation of studies.
Course Structure
The knowledge to be acquired during the course is the content of the lectures conducted in the classroom by the teacher and - in order to facilitate personal study - the topics are listed in detail in the course syllabus, with explicit references to the parts in which they are covered in the main set texts.
Practical classes and personal training by solving exercises are the means to acquire the ability to apply knowledge. Examples, with the steps necessary to apply the knowledge acquired to the solution of the circuits, are carried out by the teacher in the classroom during the practical classes that follow the explanation of a new topic. Some of the exercises solved by the teacher are also solved by means of a free software for the numerical solution of the electric networks so as to provide students with an alternative way to independently verify the correctness of the results obtained. In order to guide the student, during the personal training phase, to master the tools to be used for the solution of the circuits, at the end of each practical class, a list of recommended exercises (available on the reference books for the exercises or online) is published. In addition, the student is invited to solve the same circuit with different methods, using all the knowledge acquired and all the tools (including IT ones) at their disposal, thus multiplying the value of the single exercise. Finally, the student is encouraged to deepen the topics covered using materials other than those proposed, especially for what concerns the personal study phase, thus developing the ability to apply the acquired knowledge to contexts different from those presented during the course.
To
encourage students to study theory topics and to practice already
during the course, as well as to facilitate the passing of the final
exam in the sessions immediately following the conclusion of the
course, there is an alternative route to the classic exam (typically
consisting of a written test and an oral exam) consisting of:
- a SUITABILITY TEST, to be carried out, approximately, halfway through the period of the lessons;
- an "IN ITINERE" TEST, to be carried out at the end of the lecture period;
- a SIMPLIFIED WRITTEN TEST to be held in the exam sessions immediately following the end of the course;
- an ORAL TEST to be held a few days after the written test.
This route allows students to evaluate if they are up to date with the arguments explained by the teacher and has the advantage of splitting the written exam into two tests to be tackled at different times, ensuring the student has more time available for the solution of the proposed questions.
Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the syllabus.
Required Prerequisites
Please see the "Italian version" for more details,
Attendance of Lessons
Detailed Course Content
Topic(*) |
Outline of static and quasistatic electromagnetic fields |
Maxwell's equations. Constitutive laws. |
Stationary Current
Density Field. Resistance definition. Magnetostatic field. Inductance definition. Electrostatic field. Capacitance definition. Quasistatic fields. |
Lumped circuits and one-port elements |
From fields to circuits. Lumped elements model. Kirchhoff's laws. |
Graphs. Cut sets and loops. Sparse Tableau Analysis. |
Resistors.
Nonlinear resistors. Independent
sources. Ideal diode. Capacitors. Inductors. Duality. |
Power and energy. |
One-ports connections and equivalent transformations |
Series and parallel connections. Voltage or current divider. |
Thevenin and Norton branches. |
Wye-delta transformation. |
Two-ports |
Extrinsic or intrinsic two-ports: definitions. |
Coupled inductors. |
Ideal transformer. |
Controlled sources. |
Matrix representation of two-ports. Two-ports reciprocity. |
General methods of network analysis |
Node analysis. Mesh (and loop) analysis. |
Sinusoidal steady-state analysis |
Example:
solution of the RL parallel circuit in time-domain. First-order differential equation and initial condition. Constant current input and sinusoidal input. Transient and steady-state. Complete response. |
Fundamental theorem of sinusoidal steady state. Phasors. Application of phasors to Kirchhoff's laws and branch equations. Impedance and admittance of resistors, capacitors and inductors. |
Sinusoidal steady-state analysis of the series RC circuit: vectorial plots, low-pass and high-pass filter. |
Sinusoidal steady-state analysis of the parallel RLC circuit: vectorial plots, resonance, band-pass filter. |
Definitions of impedance and admittance. Power in sinusoidal steady state. Root-mean-square values. |
Three-wire and four-wire three-phase circuits. Line and phase voltages and currents. Symmetrical and balanced three-phase circuits. Equivalent single-phase circuit. Three-phase electric power. Single-phase power factor correction. |
Outline of electric energy transmission. |
Network theorems |
Tellegen's theorem. |
The substitution theorem. |
The superposition theorem. Application to the steady-state sinusoidal analysis. |
Thevenin·Norton equivalent network theorem. |
The theorem on the maximum power transfer. |
Boucherot's theorem. |
Dynamic analysis of first-order and second-order circuits |
First-order circuits: application of Thevenin·Norton equivalent network theorem. |
Examples of second-order circuits: series and parallel RLC circuits. Second-order differential equation and initial conditions. Overdamped case, critically damped case and underdamped case. |
The concept of state. State equations. Natural frequencies. Stability. |
Laplace transform. Basic properties. Application of Laplace transform to Kirchhoff's laws and branch equations. Impedance and admittance of resistors, capacitors and inductors. Symbolic method for the solution of general networks. |
Outline of transmission lines. |
Practical classes |
Detailed solution of exercises carried out by the professor. |
(*) | The underlined topics represent the minimum essential knowledge for passing the exam. |
Textbook Information
Teory
- M. De Magistris, G. Miano, Circuiti. Fondamenti di circuiti per l'ingegneria, Springer Verlag Italia.
- C.A. Desoer, E.S. Kuh, Fondamenti di Teoria dei Circuiti, Franco Angeli Editore.
Other books to consult
- P.P. Civalleri, Elettrotecnica, Levrotto&Bella.
- V. Daniele, A. Liberatore, R. Graglia, S. Manetti, Elettrotecnica, Monduzzi Editore
- G. Someda, Elementi di Elettrotecnica Generale, Pàtron Editore
Exercises (all the texts of exercises are equally good, we report a non-exhaustive list of some texts recommended and available at the library of Engineering).
- A. Laurentini, A.R. Meo, R. Pomè, Esercizi di elettrotecnica, Levrotto&Bella
- G. Marchesi, P.L. Mondino, C. Monti, A. Morini, Esercizi di elettrotecnica, Libreria Cortina
- S. Bobbio, Esercizi di elettrotecnica, CUEN
- J.A. Edminidter, Circuiti elettrici, coll. Schaum (1975), McGraw-Hill
- J. O’Malley, Basic Circuit Analysis (Second Edition), coll. Schaum's Outlines, McGraw-Hill
- Exercises online.
- Examination tests.
Author | Title | Publisher | Year | ISBN |
---|---|---|---|---|
Massimiliano De Magistris, Giovanni Miano | Circuiti. Fondamenti di circuiti per l'ingegneria | Springer Verlag | 2017 | 8847057698 |
Charles A. Desoer, Ernest S. Kuh | Fondamenti di teoria dei circuiti | Franco Angeli | 2010 | 8820427567 |
Course Planning
Subjects | Text References | |
---|---|---|
1 | Maxwell's equations. Constitutive laws. | Material provided by the lecturer |
2 | From fields to circuits. Lumped elements model. Kirchhoff's laws. | 1): parr. 1.1÷1.3, 1.5; 2): cap. 1 |
3 | Graphs. Cut sets and loops. | 1): par. 3.1, 3.4; 2): parr. 9.1÷9.3, 11.1 |
4 | Stationary Current Density Field. Resistance definition. | Material provided by the lecturer |
5 | Resistors. Nonlinear resistors. Independent sources. Ideal diode. Electric power. Sparse Tableau Analysis. | 1): parr. 1.4, 1.6; 2): par. 2.1, 2.2, 2.6.1 |
6 | Series and parallel connections. Voltage or current divider. | 1): parr. 4.1, 4.1.1÷4.1.6, 7.1.4; 2): cap. 3, par. 7.5.1 |
7 | Thevenin and Norton branches. Wye-delta transformation. | 1): parr. 4.1.7, 4.1.8, 4.4; 2): par. 2.2.3, prob. 15 del cap. 17 |
8 | Node analysis. Mesh (and loop) analysis. | 1): parr. 3.2, 3.3, 3.5, 3.6; 2): parr. 10.2.1, 10.2.2, 10.3.1, 10.3.2, 10.4.1, 10.5.1, 10.5.2, 7.5.2, 13.4.1 |
9 | Extrinsic or intrinsic two-ports: definitions. Controlled sources. Ideal transformer. | 1): parr. 6.1.2, 6.2.1, 6.2.2; 2): parr. 17.2, 8.3, 10.3.5, 8.2 |
10 | Matrix representation of two-ports. Two-ports reciprocity. | 1): parr. 6.3.0÷6.3.3, 6.5 2): parr. 17.5, 17.6 |
11 | Magnetostatic field. Inductance definition. Magnetic circuits. | Material provided by the lecturer |
12 | Electrostatic field. Capacitance definition. | Material provided by the lecturer |
13 | Capacitors. Inductors. Duality. | 1): parr. 1.7, 7.1.3, 7.1.4; 2): parr. 2.3, 2.4, 2.6.2, 2.6.3, 3.5 |
14 | Example: solution of the GL parallel circuit in time-domain. First-order differential equation and initial condition. Constant current input and sinusoidal input. Transient and steady-state. Complete response. | 1): par. 5.0, 5.1, 7.0, 7.1.1; 2): parr. 4.1.1÷4.1.3, 4.2.1, 4.3.1, 4.3.2 |
15 | Fundamental theorem of sinusoidal steady state. Phasors. Application of phasors to Kirchhoff's laws and branch equations. Impedance and admittance of resistors, capacitors and inductors. | 1): par. 5.2; 2): par. 7.2.1, 7.4.1, 7.5.0 |
16 | Sinusoidal steady-state analysis of the series RC circuit: vectorial plots, low-pass and high-pass filter. | 1): parr. 5.5.1, 5.8.2 2): par. 4.2.2 |
17 | Sinusoidal steady-state analysis of the parallel RLC circuit: vectorial plots, resonance, band-pass filter. | 1): parr. 5.6.0÷5.6.2, 5.8.3; 2): parr. 7.6.1, 7.6.2, 7.7.5 |
18 | Definitions of impedance and admittance. Power in sinusoidal steady state. Root-mean-square values. Single-phase power factor correction. Two-ports with impedences. | 1): parr. 5.5.0, 5.3.0÷5.3.2, 5.9.1, 5.9.3, 6.5;2): parr. 7.4.2, 7.7.1÷7.7.3, 17.5, 17.6 |
19 | Definition of magnetic coupling and mutual inductance. | |
20 | Coupled inductors. | 1): par. 6.4; 2): parr. 8.1.0÷8.1.2, 8.1.4, 10.6.1 |
21 | Three-wire and four-wire three-phase circuits. Line and phase voltages and currents. Symmetrical and balanced three-phase circuits. Equivalent single-phase circuit. Three-phase electric power. | 1): par. 5.9.4; Materiale didattico fornito dal docente |
22 | Rotating magnetic field. | |
23 | Outline of electric energy transmission. | |
24 | Tellegen's theorem. | 1): par. 3.7; 2): parr. 9.4, 10.2.3 |
25 | The substitution theorem. | 2): par. 16.1 |
26 | The superposition theorem. Application to the steady-state sinusoidal analysis. | 1): par. 4.2.3, 5.7.1, 5.7.2; 2): par. 16.2, 7.3.3 |
27 | Thevenin·Norton equivalent network theorem. | 1): par. 4.3; 2): par. 16.3 |
28 | The theorem on the maximum power transfer. | 2): par. 7.7.4 |
29 | Boucherot's theorem. | 1): par. 5.3.3; 2): par. 5.2 |
30 | First-order circuits: application of Thevenin·Norton equivalent network theorem. | Materiale didattico fornito dal docente |
31 | Examples of second-order circuits: series and parallel RLC circuits. Second-order differential equation and initial conditions. Overdamped case, critically damped case and underdamped case. | 1): par. 7.1.2 2): parr. 5.1, 5.2.1 |
32 | The concept of state. State equations. Natural frequencies. Stability. | 1): parr. 7.2.1÷7.2.3, 7.2.5, 7.1.3; 2): parr. 12.2, 12.4, 14.1, 14.4, 19.5, 19.6.1, 19.6.3 |
33 | Laplace transform. Basic properties. Application of Laplace transform to Kirchhoff's laws and branch equations. Impedance and admittance of resistors, capacitors and inductors. | 1): parr. 7.4.1÷7.4.3; 2): parr. 13.0÷13.2 |
34 | Symbolic method for the solution of general networks. | 1): parr. 7.4.5; 2): parr. 13.3÷13.4 |
35 | Quasistatic fields. Eddy currents and skin effect. | |
36 | Outline of transmission lines. | |
37 | Practical lessons. | Elenco di esercizi consigliati suddivisi per argomento (sito web del corso). Testi di riferimento per gli esercizi. |
Learning Assessment
Learning Assessment Procedures
Please see the "Italian version" for more details,